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## Tiger hash algorithm

Tiger hash algorithm is designed by Ross Anderson and Eli Biham in 1995,The original Tiger hash algorithm produce a 192 bits value.Tiger 128 and Tiger 160 produce 128 bits value and 160 bits value respectively ,Tiger2 algorithm is a variant of the original Tiger hash algorithm.Tiger2 produce a hash which is padded by first appending a byte with the hexadecimal value of 0x80 .

The tiger hash algorithm is a cryptographic hash function . it is designed by Ross Anderson and Eli Biham in 1995.Initially the tiger hash algorithm is designed for 64-bit platforms.The length of a tiger hash is 192 bits.There are also 128 and 160 bit variation of the tiger 192 bit version. These are the tiger 128 and tiger 192 version

## The detail of tiger Algorithm

The tiger hash Algorithm is designed with the universal Merkle-Damgård paradigm,It is a one way compression Algorithm which is operated on 64 bit words. It can maintaining 3 words of states and can process 8 words of data,There are total 24 iteration of Algorithm processing, within each iteration ,the Algorithm produce the output with a mixing with XOR and addition/subtraction, rotates, and S-box lookups. It is quite complex .

Although the implementation in software is quite easy, because the large S-boxes (4 S-boxes, each with 256 64-bit entries totals 8 KiB) the hardware implementation of the tiger Algorithm is not easy for small microcontrollers

## The usage of tiger Algorithm

The mostly used tiger Algorithm is in the Merkle hash tree form.IN Direct Connect and Gnutella file sharing networks THE TIGHER hash Algorithm is also refferd to as Tiger Tree Hash

The tiger hash Algorithm is also contained in OpenPGP standard , but the RIPEMD-160 is Favored over it

## The byte order of The tiger hash Algorithm

The specification of Tiger hash Algorithm does not specify. the output of Tiger but only defines the result should contain three ordered 64-bit integers. In the Direct Connect and ADC protocols the tiger hash Algorithm is used as little-endian byte order

## The Cryptanalysis of tiger hash Algorithm

There are not known effective ways to attack the full 24-round Tiger hash Algorithm except for pseudo-near collision.

The tiger hash Algorithm updates its state with a total of 144 simple 32-bit operations per 512-bit block and additionally strengthened by large S-box look-ups. , which is better than the MD5 hash Algorithm

MR John Kelsey and MR Stefan Lucks have found a collision-finding attack on the 16-round Tiger hash Algorithm with a time complexity equivalent to about 244 compression function invocations.

They also found another attack in 20-round Tiger with work less than that of 248 compression function invocations.

MR Florian Mendel et al have improved the attack method above by describing a collision attack spanning 19 rounds of Tiger. and a 22-round pseudo-near-collision attack.

All the attacks above require a work effort equivalent to around 262 and 244 evaluations of the Tiger compression function

## The reason that the Tiger Hash Algorithm is not popular in cryptography

At first when the tiger hash Algorithm is invented, the tiger hash Algorithm is considered a fast hash Algorithm with a large digest (192 bits) compare to the MD5 and SHA1 Hash Algorithm

But after the RIPE-160 hash Algorithm was invented , it is considered better than the Tiger Hash Algorithm, and with the advent of Whirlpool and SHA2 (both having digests up to 512 bits) the tiger Hash Algorithm seems more obsolete . this is made worse after Whirlpool and SHA2 Algorithm were assessed (and subsequently recommended) by the NESSIE (Europe) and CRYPTOREC (Japan). and standardised by ISO. So at last tiger hash Algorithm become a un popular hash algorithm.

From today’s perspective , the Tiger hash algorithm security margin is starting to look quite narrow. Because it can provide 96 bits of security