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The Whirlpool hash algorithm
The whirlpool hash algorithm is named after the Whirlpool galaxy Canes Venatici (M51, or NGC 5194), which is the first galaxy that is recognized to have spiral structure by William Parsons in April 1845.
The WHIRLPOOL is a cryptographic hash algorithm , the WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm is invented by Vincent Rijmen and Paulo S in 2000. (Vincent Rijmen is also the co-creator of the famous Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)algorithm )
The WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm can have an input of a data stream that is shorter than 2256 bits,The output of WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm is a 512bits fix-length message digest which is typically represented as 128-digit hexadecimal numbers.
There is 3 versions of WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm.
The first version of WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm is called the WHIRLPOOL-0. The WHIRLPOOL-0 algorithm was submitted to the NESSIE project.
The second version of WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm was called WHIRLPOOL-T , the WHIRLPOOL-T version is a slightly improved version of the WHIRLPOOL-0. And the WHIRLPOOL-T version is selected for the NESSIE portfolio of cryptographic primitives.
The final version is what we call the WHIRLPOOL hash algorithm, the final WHIRLPOOL version is another bug fixed version of WHIRLPOOL-T again and also is more hardware implementation efficient .
The application of Whirlpool hash algorithm
The final version of Whirlpool hash algorithm is accepted by the International Organization for Standardization in the standard of ISO/IEC 10118-3:2004
The Whirlpool hash algorithm is also recommended by the NESSIE project and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as part of the joint ISO/IEC 10118-3 international standard.
The Whirlpool hash function is widely used in mainstream cryptographic programs such as FreeOTFE and TrueCrypt.
The Whirlpool hash algorithm is also commonly used by many companies to hash simple data.
There are also several programming languages that provide Whirlpool hash functions such as PHP and python programming language and java programming language.
In fact comparing to other hash functions such as MD hash algorithm family and sha hash function family , the Whirlpool hash algorithm is still used in minority .
I have to mention the WHIRLPOOL is not (and will never be) patented. It may be used free of charge for any purpose. The reference implementations are in the public domain. Which make the WHIRLPOOL a very good candidate in open source applications.
Real world example and Whirlpool hash algorithm
Whirlpool_function(‘the firefighters are very brave!’)=
As you can see the result of Whirlpool hash is quite long , it is a 128-digit hexadecimal numbers string.
The design of Whirlpool hash algorithm
The Whirlpool hash algorithm is designed using the Square block cipher and is considered to be in that family of block cipher functions. And the Whirlpool hash algorithm is a Miyaguchi-Preneel construction based on a substantially modified Advanced Encryption Standard(AES).
The block cipher W consists of an 8×8 state matrix S of bytes, for a total of 512 bits.
The encryption process consists of updating the state with four round functions over 10 rounds. The four round functions are SubBytes (SB), ShiftColumns (SC), MixRows (MR) and AddRoundKey (AK). During each round the new state is computed as S=AK*MR*SC*SB(S)
From the designer ,The design goal of the Whirlpool hash algorithm is
The expected workload of generating a collision is of the order of 2n/2 executions of WHIRLPOOL.
Given an n-bit value, the expected workload of finding a message that hashes to that value is of the order of 2n executions of WHIRLPOOL.
Given a message and its n-bit hash result, the expected workload of finding a second message that hashes to the same value is of the order of 2n executions of WHIRLPOOL.
It is infeasible to detect systematic correlations between any linear combination of input bits and any linear combination of bits of the hash result, or to predict what bits of the hash result will change value when certain input bits are flipped (this means resistance against linear and differential attacks).
In the first revision (WHIRLPOOL-T) in 2001, the s-box was changed from a randomly generated one with good cryptographic properties to one which has better cryptographic properties and is easier to implement in hardware.
In the second revision(WHIRLPOOL) (2003), a flaw in the diffusion matrix was found that lowered the estimated security of the algorithm below its potential.Changing the 8×8 rotating matrix constants from (1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 8, 9, 5) to (1, 1, 4, 1, 8, 5, 2, 9) solved this issue.
Attack against Whirlpool hash algorithm
In 2009, a rebound attack was published that presents full collisions against 4.5 rounds of Whirlpool in 2120 operations, semi-free-start collisions against 5.5 rounds in 2120 time and semi-free-start near-collisions against 7.5 rounds in 2128 time.
Beside the above attacks, there is no other attacks reported as the time of writing, at least in the surface the Whirlpool algorithm is much more secure than quite a number of hash algorithms.